Focus today, China has achieved leadership in the important field of nuclear fusion
nuclear fusion energy has the characteristics of rich resources, high inherent safety, good environmental acceptability and so on. It is the most ideal form of energy for mankind. In the 1980s, China formulated the nuclear energy development strategy of "thermal reactor fast reactor fusion reactor" and "three steps", and then further promoted the fusion energy research of China to enter the international camp by participating in the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER). Liu Yong, chairman of the nuclear fusion and plasma branch of the Chinese Nuclear Society and President of the Southwest Institute of physics of the nuclear industry (hereinafter referred to as "Xiwu academy"), revealed at the "2017 academic annual meeting of the Chinese Nuclear Society" a few days ago that China's research in Fusion Engineering and science has developed from following and parallel to leading in some fields. Moreover, significant progress has been made in the task of ITER plan procurement package undertaken by ChinaOn November 21, 2006, China, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the United States signed a joint implementation agreement of the ITER program and related documents to jointly build a superconducting tokamak type fusion experimental reactor to explore the scientific and engineering feasibility of peaceful use of fusion energy for power generation. It is understood that ITER will become the world's first power station level fusion experimental reactor, which is an indispensable step to finally realize the commercialization of magnetic confinement fusion energy. It is also the largest international cooperation project in which China participated as an equal partner for the first time
it is understood that at present, domestic institutions engaged in magnetic confinement controlled nuclear fusion research include Western Academy of physics, Institute of plasma physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics and other scientific research institutions, as well as some universities. Among them, Xiwu Institute and Zhongke not only strive for beauty and service life, but also hope that consumers like it. The Institute of plasma physics of Xiwu Institute is the main undertaking unit of China's participation in ITER program; Guizhou Aerospace Xinli, Western superconductor, Ningxia Dongfang, Hefei Keye and other enterprises participated in the R & D and processing of relevant components, materials and processes of ITER program
"nuclear fusion research is one of the most challenging topics in human history. Its basic principle is to slow down the process of nuclear fusion reaction to release energy, and make peaceful use of this energy." Liu Yong said, "this project faces great technical challenges. We have studied it for 50 years, mainly because its implementation conditions are very harsh. It requires a high temperature of more than 100million degrees, a long time to be confined in a limited space, and a high enough density. For decades, we have mainly solved the problem of how to restrict the high-temperature plasma of hundreds of millions of degrees for a long time, so that it can fully react, and solve the problem of self-sustaining combustion of fusion."
although the process is difficult, China has made significant progress in the research and development of fusion devices and experiments
at present, the main research facilities (in service/under construction) of magnetic confinement controlled nuclear fusion with certain international influence include East, HL-2A, HL-2M, etc. Among them, the market-oriented operation and high constrained mode (H-mode) discharge of the divertor configuration Tokamak were successfully realized for the first time on the "China loop 2A" (HL-2A) device. This major scientific research achievement has enabled China to stand on an advanced platform for nuclear fusion research after the European Union, the United States and Japan. As a significant milestone in the history of magnetic confinement fusion experimental research in China, this achievement also marks that China's magnetic confinement fusion science and plasma physics experimental research have entered a new stage close to the international frontier. In the experiment in 2016, HL-2A realized low hybrid wave coupling under H-mode condition by using passive spacer waveguide array (PAM) antenna for the first time, which provided important data for the design of ITER low hybrid wave current driven antenna
in addition, on July 3 this year, "Oriental super ring" East realized stable 101.2 second steady-state long pulse high confinement plasma operation, becoming the world's first Tokamak nuclear fusion experimental device to realize steady-state high confinement mode operation with a duration of 100 seconds. East has continuously improved the plant capacity in the past two years and played an important role in discovering advanced steady-state operation modes. At present, the East experiment has made new progress, achieving a new record of fully non inductive steady-state H-mode operation (about 50 seconds), increased core constraints in fully non inductive steady-state operation, and long pulse operation with high electron temperature for more than 100 seconds
excellent completion of ITER procurement package task
"China can participate in ITER because we have laid a good foundation in the past 50 years, and the progress in these years is even faster." Liu Yong said
it is understood that under the leadership and organization and coordination of the ITER center of the Ministry of science and technology, the Western Academy of physics and the Institute of plasma physics of the Chinese Academy of sciences have given full play to their research advantages in the development of fusion devices and fusion reactors and their components. With the full recognition and good communication of the ITER organization, they have jointly launched technical breakthroughs with relevant advantageous domestic enterprises. The ITER procurement package task undertaken by China is progressing smoothly and has made a series of technological breakthroughs, Fruitful results
for example, can China provide superconducting materials for ITER
the answer is yes. "Through this project, we have completely come to the forefront of the world in superconducting materials. In addition, materials such as correction field coils are also fully undertaken by China." Liu Yong said
for another example, among many procurement packages, the "first wall" undertaken by Xiwu Institute has passed the test of multi round module manufacturing and high heat load test, and key processes such as laser welding process have passed the IO (ITER International Organization) certification; ITER neutron shielding module procurement package (sb) has now entered the processing and manufacturing stage of domestic suppliers. Xiwu Institute is responsible for the use of the package extrusion unit, and its auxiliary equipment for selection is also different from the same layer shielding module technology; Xiwu academy also undertakes all ITER magnet support tasks. The new design scheme proposed based on the optimization design and analysis of ITER GS support structure has been recognized by ITER
"the implementation of ITER plan has driven the development of relevant domestic disciplines and industries, and its scientific and engineering goals are fully expected to be achieved." Liu Yong commented
according to the ITER schedule, the initial plasma will be generated in 2025 and the deuterium tritium discharge will be realized in 2035. "At present, our goal is to make the process of fusion reactor faster." Liu Yong said that China's Roadmap for the development of fusion energy has begun to take shape, and China will make unremitting efforts to strive for the early completion of fusion reactors and take the lead in realizing nuclear fusion energy. In, China will build the China fusion engineering test reactor cfetr and start the design of the fusion demonstration reactor Damo, laying a solid scientific and technological foundation for the independent and large-scale construction of fusion power stations in China in the middle of this century
Liu Yong said that the fusion reactor is still facing key technical challenges. "The fusion reactor will be of high quality and high parameters (high plasma temperature and density) It has always been one of the core contents of fusion research to produce continuous and stable fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium and fusion energy output. In terms of how to adopt the operation mode and operating parameters, how to maintain a stable combustion plasma, achieve mutual compatibility with peripheral engineering components, and ensure the safety of the device, some key physical and technical challenges, in turn, are the 10% - 15%, 30% - 40%, 45% - 55% weight reduction of vehicles, which still need to be further studied. "