Application of digital three-dimensional manikin i

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Application of digital three-dimensional manikin in automobile layout CAD design

Abstract: automobile interior layout design is a complex and important human centered design process in automobile design. This paper discusses the technology of digital three-dimensional manikin and its important role in virtual automobile interior ergonomic layout design. SAE standards related to automobile interior layout are listed

key words: ergonomics analysis of digital three-dimensional human body model virtual design technology of automobile interior layout

1 preface

automobile is a very complex product and needs to meet the performance requirements of all aspects. Its design and development process is also composed of many different working stages, and each working stage needs to use a variety of different design verification technologies. Only by adopting new technology to comprehensively integrate the whole product development process and its different working methods can the purpose of accelerating and optimizing the design be achieved

digital virtual technology is to integrate various computer technologies and give full play to their application potential, so that product development and design can reliably complete product design and verification in the form of digital models in the computer system. In automobile development, virtual technology helps decision-makers to make decisions and track management of design schemes as soon as possible; It helps to strengthen cooperation in different places and jointly solve technical problems; It is conducive to repeated verification and verification before manufacturing the sample vehicle, so as to detect and avoid design errors as soon as possible; It helps to obtain product information as early as possible for market research before the product is put into production. Digital virtual technology, which runs through the whole process of product development, can comprehensively and systematically optimize the clockwise rotation of the pendulum of product characteristics, greatly shorten the development cycle, greatly reduce the development cost, improve product quality, and finally improve the competitiveness of enterprises in the market

2 automobile interior layout design

automobile interior layout is a complex system engineering from conception, design to verification. Many constraints and ergonomic requirements should be considered in layout. Automobile interior layout is a "people-centered" design, that is, people-centered, under certain constraints, the use of ergonomics to achieve the design concept of human vehicle environment harmony. The design of automobile interior layout is a design process of multi-faceted layout at the same time, and it is also a design process of constantly and repeatedly seeking the optimal scheme

the main tasks of the interior layout of the vehicle are: ① determination of the main layout dimensions of the vehicle model: Passenger layout; Determine the main dimensions of the whole vehicle; Layout of pedal, gear selector and handbrake positions; Layout of steering wheel and steering column; Luggage compartment layout; Side window glass; Position of top cover; Seat and instrument panel layout, etc. ② Ergonomics research: ensure the living comfort and safety of drivers and passengers, as well as the driver's ease of operation and good vision. ③ Compliance check: windshield area and wiper layout; Reach the interface; Visible range of instrument panel; Field of vision of inside and outside rearview mirrors; Safety belt anchorage, etc. While meeting these requirements, we should also try to reduce the mass of the whole vehicle, increase the indoor space and improve the economic performance of the whole vehicle. In the traditional design, engineers use the two-dimensional human body template to design the internal layout of the car on the two-dimensional master plate. It is impossible to evaluate and verify the spatial position of the pedal, gear selector, steering wheel's maneuverability, sitting posture and visibility in advance. The verification can be completed only after a certain proportion of people carry out the actual driving operation after making a physical sample car.

nowadays, due to the development and application of computer technology, CAD method has been widely used in automobile development for three-dimensional digital design. Taking three-dimensional data as the main line, virtual prototype is used to optimize the product design and verification process. Therefore, the digital three-dimensional manikin plays its potential and advantages in the ergonomic simulation and analysis of the interior layout of the car

3 digital three-dimensional manikin

at all stages of the product cycle, people are the most important factor in the VOC Control of the whole vehicle. Digital three-dimensional manikin can be effectively applied in the whole life cycle of automotive virtual design and manufacturing, from the initial conceptual design to the final product verification

digital manikin technology can assist designers to determine human performance in the corresponding working environment, determine human size/shape/function and its positioning, and meet the requirements of comfort and safety standards. As shown in Figure 1, the virtual manikin can be transferred into the virtual CAD design data to complete the operation tasks and analysis work. Through the three-dimensional manikin, the digital human body and electronic sample car can be used to simulate, analyze and verify the human related elements, such as human operability, comfort, visibility and other important design elements. The application of digital three-dimensional manikin in the interior layout of automobile can improve the design efficiency and quality; Improve safety and ergonomic performance; Reduce the manufacturing and verification work and cycle of physical sample vehicles

Figure 1 digital three-dimensional manikin is applied in CAD design

Boeing, general motors, Daimler Chrysler and other large aircraft and automobile companies have increasingly applied digital three-dimensional manikin to all aspects and stages of the product life cycle. CATIA, EDS and other large software companies have also launched digital three-dimensional manikin modules for users to use and constantly supplement and improve

now take the manikin module of CATIA as an example to briefly explain the main functions of the digital three-dimensional manikin. The three-dimensional manikin includes four sub modules: the human builder module, which generates a manikin that can be matched with the product; The human measurement edit module can adjust the size of each part of the manikin in proportion; The human activity analysis module evaluates human limbs from static posture to complex dynamic movements; Human Po (with the use of high-function plastic materials in cars, sture analysis) module is used to analyze various postures of the human body. The manikin includes 104 groups of anthropometric data; 100 unconstrained connections; 148 degrees of freedom; Various postural contours; Hand model, spine model, shoulder model, hip model and other models including all joints; It can show the restriction of joint activity and the upper and lower limits of movement, and can be adjusted. This module has the following uses: measuring human body size; Visual field analysis; Sitting posture analysis; Analysis of sports comfort angle; Coverage analysis; Lifting, lowering and handling analysis; Design interference inspection; Motion simulation, etc

4 ergonomics involved in car interior layout according to SAE standards

when car interior layout is carried out, SAE has the following relevant standards for ergonomic research and design of drivers and passengers

5 apply the digital three-dimensional manikin to the interior layout and design verification of the car

the digital three-dimensional manikin plays an important role in the layout design and verification of ergonomics in the interior layout design and verification of the car. Figure 2 shows an example of the application of digital three-dimensional manikin in the search for a solution - interior layout of cars. It assists automotive design engineers in a series of optimization of the layout of occupant habitability, mainly including: assisting in determining the main control dimensions of the vehicle; Determine the riding position and driving posture of drivers and passengers with different body sizes; Analyze and evaluate the riding posture and comfort of human body; Determine the layout position of pedal, steering wheel, control lever, instrument, control button and other parts, and evaluate the rationality of operation; Simulate the attitude of passengers to get on and off to evaluate the convenience of getting on and off; Determination of the seat position of the driver and passengers and the fixed position of the safety belt; Simulate and evaluate the sliding of the seat and the motion process of the rod manipulation; Check the compliance of the driver's direct vision and indirect vision through the internal and external rear-view mirrors during driving; Assist in the layout of the instrument panel and the verification of the blind area of the instrument panel; Determine the reasonable interior width and overhead space; Analyze the force distribution of human weight on the seat; Evaluate the force exerted by the hand and foot when operating the control parts; At the same time, check the design gap and interference analysis, finally record the data and output the optimized layout results

Figure 2 Application of digital three-dimensional manikin in automobile interior layout

6 Conclusion and outlook

digital three-dimensional manikin provides a favorable tool for virtual design of automobile interior layout. With the development of virtual technology, virtual reality technology is also applied in the process of virtual product development of automobile. For example, a virtual seat can be used to connect the virtual reality technology with the physical model, so that the driver wearing a helmet and digital gloves can perceive the layout of the internal space of the car cab to evaluate the virtual layout, and check the operability and comfort of the internal space design. Virtual design and verification technology will be more and more widely used in product development


1 SAE recommended practices

2 Joachim Rix, Andr é stork, combining ergonomic and field of view analysis using virtual humans, Fraunhofer Institute for computer graphics, Darmstadt, Germany, 2001

3 Guo Zhuting, editor in chief Automobile body design Jilin Science and Technology Press, 1992

4 Wen WuFan Automotive ergonomics Jilin Science and Technology Press, 1991

5 CATIA – manikin user manuals, 2002

6 EDS - Jack user manuals, 2002 (end)

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