Application of forging machinery in automobile ind

2022-08-13
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Discussion on the application of forging machinery in the automotive industry since entering the 21st century, China's automotive industry has maintained a momentum of sustainable development. Before the 1990s, the leading product of the domestic automobile industry was trucks. After nearly a decade of development, there was a gratifying pattern with cars as the leader. The strategic shift of focusing on the development of cars in the automotive industry has brought unprecedented development opportunities to the equipment manufacturing industry. Among all walks of life, the automobile industry is the most closely related to the equipment manufacturing industry. Relevant data shows that more than 50% of machine tools and more than 60% of industrial robots in the United States are used in the automotive industry. Therefore, the United States has become not only the kingdom of automobiles, but also a major machine tool producer. The development history of the automobile industry in developed countries has proved this. The development of the automobile industry has improved the equipment manufacturing industry, especially the machine tool manufacturing industry. The improvement of the machine tool manufacturing industry supports and ensures the prosperity of the automobile industry in terms of technology and technology. As an important part of machine tool manufacturing industry, forging machinery is closely related to the development of automobile industry. Taking typical metal sheet stamping parts and typical forgings of cars as examples, this paper discusses the application of forging machinery in the automotive industry

process equipment of typical metal sheet stamping parts

in the production of car, stamping, welding, coating and final assembly are collectively referred to as the four processes of car production. According to statistics, among the more than 2000 parts of cars, sheet metal stamping parts account for more than 40% according to the number of pieces. The position of stamping technology and equipment in the automotive industry can be seen. Today's car production highlights the personalized characteristics of models, making the replacement cycle shorter and shorter. The change of car type is mainly reflected in the change of body shape and structure, which is matched by the ever-changing metal sheet stamping parts. Metal sheet stamping parts can be roughly divided into three categories, namely body covering parts, body structural parts and small and medium-sized stamping parts. Body covering parts and body structural parts are parts with the function of maintaining the shape of the body, such as doors, roof covers, side walls, trunk covers, etc., and are the main body of metal sheet stamping parts. Small and medium-sized stamping parts are scattered in cars, such as wheels, clutches, automotive air conditioners, micro motors and other components, there are a large number of stamping parts. To study the process equipment of typical metal sheet stamping parts of cars, there is no doubt that the process equipment of body panels should be treated as a leader

process equipment for metal panels

since the industrial production of body panels, mechanical presses have always been the main equipment. The typical combination is a stamping production line composed of a double acting mechanical press and several single acting mechanical presses. Although the form of stamping production line has been widely used, its connotation is constantly changing. Firstly, with the improvement of the automation level of single machine, the application of automatic rapid adjustment technology and automatic rapid die change technology enhances the flexibility of stamping production line; Secondly, the structural form of the stamping production line has been continuously improved, from the flow line of manual loading and unloading to the semi-automatic stamping line and automatic stamping line; Third, what is more significant for technological progress is that multi station presses enter the stamping production line, and laser processing and stamping processing are integrated to form a generalized automatic stamping line

Figure 1 multi position press

the progress of China's Forging Machinery Industry in the process equipment of body panels is obvious to all. Through the scientific and technological breakthrough since the eighth five year plan, the independent development ability of the forging machinery industry has been significantly improved. On this basis, relevant enterprises have provided dozens of stamping production lines for Chinese car manufacturers by introducing the design and manufacturing technology of famous companies such as Schuler of Germany, Wilson of the United States and Komatsu of Japan, or by cooperating with foreign manufacturers, and have a place in the international market

at present, the rapid development of body panel stamping technology is remarkable, which is mainly reflected in the joining of hydraulic press, the use of multi station press and the maturity of flexible technology

as mentioned above, mechanical press is the main body of stamping production line. Without it, North America will become a strong MDI consumer market for a long time. Its equipment can shake its dominant position. However, with the breakthrough of some key technologies of hydraulic press, the advantages and potential of hydraulic press in stamping have been brought into full play, the productivity has been significantly improved, and the problems of stroke synchronization and interlocking with conveyor have been satisfactorily solved, resulting in the trend of hydraulic press as the host of stamping production line. Of course, this does not mean that the hydraulic press will replace the mechanical press. Although the stamping production line can all use the hydraulic press, or the hydraulic press can be mixed with the mechanical press, the stamping production line composed of the mechanical press as the main engine is still the mainstream after all

the stamping production line widely used in the early stage is composed of a double acting mechanical press and several single acting mechanical presses, between which a workpiece turnover device is set. The emergence of multi station automatic sheet metal press is favored by the automotive industry because of its multi process processing in one stroke, compact structure and high production efficiency. As the main machine used in stamping production line, multi position press is much more difficult than single machine. A series of technical problems such as driving system, transmission system and detection system must be solved. In recent years, with the solution of the above technical problems one by one, it is possible for the multi station press to enter the stamping production line as the host

Figure 2 series press production line

the flexible technology is becoming mature, which is the most important technological progress in the production of car body panels. First of all, the numerical control of the equipment constituting the stamping production line has laid the foundation for the automation of the stamping production line. The improvement of flexible transmission technology, off-line simulation technology and off-line programming technology, especially the practicality of the mold system, which includes the functions of automatic mold warehouse, automatic mold identification and extraction, and automatic adjustment of mold working parameters, marks that the flexible technology of body panels has matured, making it possible to produce large-scale panels in a "personalized" manner, to order and "on-time"

the advent of flexible stamping automatic line indicates that the development of flexible technology is gradually complete. The basic structure of the flexible stamping automatic line is still a double action press and several single action presses in series. There is a destacking device in front of the double acting press, which is composed of a loading car, a hydraulic jack, a magnetic layerer, a vacuum suction cup lifter, a double material detector, a magnetic roller table, a double material extractor, a cleaning and oiling device and a feeding device; There is a loading and unloading device between the double acting press and the single acting press, including a feeder, a turnover device, a conveyor and a feeder; The feeding and unloading device between the single acting presses is composed of a feeder, a conveyor and a feeder; The last single acting press is followed by a stacking device, which is composed of a tripper, a conveyor and a stacking car. In addition, automatic quick change system, automatic quick adjustment system, fault detection system and waste removal and transportation system are essential. Due to the full application of robot technology, microelectronics technology and hydraulic technology, not only the automation of stamping process is realized, but also the flexibility of production organization is brought

the automatic stamping production line of large multi station press represents an advanced combination mode, which should be paid special attention to. The continuous improvement of large-scale multi station press and the demand for the production of large car panels have promoted the development of automatic stamping production line of large-scale multi station press. The original combination is composed of a double acting tensile press and a single acting large multi station press. A set of turnover device and synchronization device are equipped between them, which improves the production pace to a certain extent and reduces the floor area. The configuration of the second generation production line is greatly simplified. A multi station press with double action stretching station is equipped with destacking device and stacking device before and after it, forming an automatic stamping production line. This kind of multi position press is mostly a four column three slider structure. The first station under the first slider is a double action stretching station, and the rest stations are single action stamping stations. Because the stretching station adopts the reverse stretching method, thus avoiding the turnover of the workpiece, there is no need for the turnover device, which further improves the productivity and reduces the floor area. The emergence of large multi position press with CNC hydraulic air cushion abandons the traditional concept of double action drawing process, and truly combines drawing and other stamping processes into one press. The hardware composition of the automatic stamping production line is still a host machine equipped with destacking device and stacking device. The host machine is a multi station press with CNC hydraulic air cushion, and the CNC hydraulic air cushion is its technical core. The CNC hydraulic air cushion can adjust the blank holder force of stretching work through four corner control, so as to realize single action deep stretching. Using numerical control hydraulic air cushion to replace the traditional double action press, not only simplifies the structure of the press, cancels the turnover device, but also realizes the optimal control of blank holder force, improves the quality of stretched parts and reduces the scrap rate of workpieces

China's automotive industry has a long-term diversified demand for equipment, so the production process of large panels is also diverse. With the development of technology, many enterprises have transformed or will transform the assembly line of manual loading and unloading into semi-automatic stamping line and automatic stamping line, but few enterprises use flexible automatic stamping line. Due to the high cost and technical problems, the automatic stamping production line of large-scale multi position press has yet to be popularized and used in China. At present, China's forging machinery industry can not only independently provide traditional configured stamping production lines, semi-automatic stamping lines and automatic stamping lines, but also have the ability to provide flexible stamping automatic lines and large multi station press automatic stamping lines

technological equipment of steel plate formed wheels

in terms of structure, car wheels are mainly divided into combined wheels and integral wheels, and in terms of material, there are steel plate formed wheels and aluminum alloy wheels. At present, the combined steel plate forming wheel occupies a very important position, and there will be no one-piece aluminum alloy wheel dominating the world in the short term. The combined steel plate forming wheel is mainly composed of rim and spokes, and the production technology of rim and spokes has always been concerned. At present, there are roughly two processes for producing rims, one is rolling production process, the other is spinning production process; There are two main methods to produce spokes, namely stamping and spinning

the typical configuration of the automatic production line for producing car rims by rolling process can be divided into three parts according to the nature of the process: the first part includes an automatic uncoiling unit, a leveling and shearing unit, and the coil is prepared into a fixed length sheet for processing rims; The second part includes the rounding unit, welding and weld cleaning unit, chamfering and flaring unit, which rolls the plates from the previous process into the annular blanks required by the rim; The third part includes a rolling forming unit (usually composed of three rolling forming machines) and a finishing and expanding unit, which rolls the annular blank into a formed rim. The advantage of rolling process is high productivity. The productivity of this kind of automatic production line abroad is generally pieces/hour

the advantage of spinning process in producing car rims is that by effectively controlling the plastic flow of metal, variable cross-section and equal strength rims can be processed to improve the quality of rims. However, the spinning process has the disadvantage of low productivity. The productivity of typical foreign production lines is usually pieces/small

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